Latest Technology of Biofloc India Businesses
Biofloc aquaculture is a “sun rise sector” in India Biofloc kya hai , which plays a crucial role in socioeconomic expansion and is considered as influential income and employment generator. In the last three decades (1980–2010), world aquaculture production has expanded by almost 12 times, atanaverageannualrate of 8.8 percent (FAO, 2010). Biofloc aquaculture in India especially has evolved as a commercial enterprise with an impressive annual growth rate of 6-7 percent. However, along with intensification of commercial shrimp culture, industry started to face issues like spiralling price of commercial feed, diseases outbreaks, sustainability concern etc. Hence, the concepts of delivering high production with sustainable approach through evolvingeco-friendly technologies started getting momentum worldwide. Modern, industrial aquaculture could strengthen its social and ecological roots by articulating its evolution along a sustainability trajectory and by adopting fully the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) ecosystems approach to aquaculture (EAA; Soto et al., 2007). While acknowledging the economicgains and employment opportunities provided by shrimp sector, it is essential to recognize that the growth of Biofloc aquaculture in India is skewed towards monoculture of shrimp. During 2014 -15 shrimp aquaculture has shown a tremendous growth (30.64%) and achieved highest production (4,34,558MT). Ecosystem approach to aquaculture (EAA) is a strategy for the integration of the activity within the wider ecosystem in such a way that it promotes sustainable development, equity, and resilience of interlinked social and ecological systems” (Soto et al., 2007).
Step wise farming
The present article provides innovative aquaculture practices for Indian Biofloc aquaculture keeping in mind the ecosystem approach, its principle, relevance and conceptual framework. Ecosystem approach to aquaculture (EAA) The Fisheries and aquaculture department of FAO recognized the need of development of ecosystem based management for aquaculture in the line of the code of conduct for responsible fisheries in the year 2006. EAA is defined as “a strategy for the integration of aquaculture with the wider ecosystem such that it promotes sustainable development, equity and resilience of interlinked social-ecological systems”. FAO suggested three objectives for the ecosystem approach of aquaculture: human wellbeing, ecological wellbeing and ability to achieve these by effective governance, and these can be measured at farm, region and global level. EAA works on three interlinked principles. These three principles are operated at three levels, farm level, watershed or region level and globe level (Figure 1 a & b). These three principles are: 2 Principle 1“Aquaculture development and management should take account of the full range of ecosystem functions and services, and should not threaten the sustained delivery of these to society” Development of aquaculture within the acceptable limits of environmental variable requires an understanding about the carrying capacity of the ecosystem and ecosystem functioning. Any aquaculture pond orcage is the ‘aquaculture ecosystem’ and the ecosystem where this production system is embedded is the wider ecosystem. The resilient or carrying capacity of this ecosystem should bedefined. Principle 2 “Aquaculture should improve human well-being and equity for all relevant Stakeholders” Aquaculture should promote food security and environmental safety. Here food security does not suggest that it should solve the problems of hunger, particularly area where aquaculture is anewactivity. However, it should promote livelihood and generate employment opportunity. Aquaculture development should ensure that it benefits are properly shared among all thestakeholders. Principle 3 “Aquaculture should be developed in the context of other sectors, policies and goals” This principle acknowledge the opportunity of integrating or linking aquaculture with other producing sector to promote material and energy recycling and optimal use of resources. Aquaculture does not take place in isolation, although its impact to other human activities is rather lesser than agriculture and industry. Figure 1 a) Ecosystem based approach to aquaculture-guiding principles and scales. b) Sustainable intensification. Ecosystem approach to Biofloc aquaculture (EABA) in India Considering the full range of ecosystem functions and management has traditionally been practiced in Biofloc aquaculture in India, which is closely associated with the principle one. Further, there has been research initiation to refine the technique and document the current practices. In this system effluents and residues from the farming system has been recycled and used as resource. 3 Traditional Biofloc aquaculture system in India In the coastal states like Kerala, West Bengal, Karnataka and Goa, traditional Biofloc aquaculture prevails which are classical examples of integrated aquaculture, essentially falls under the framework of EABA. It is practiced in two forms 1) Temporal integration of rice with shrimp 2) Simultaneous integration of rice and fish culture. In this type of system, tall, salt tolerant rice varieties are cultured during the monsoon season (summer monsoon: June to Nov) in the fields bordering the backwaters of Kerala, and during the post monsoon and summer season shrimps are cultivated. In the later during the rainy season when salinity is negligible, rice and Biofloc fishes are cultivated simultaneously. Chemical fertilizers or pesticides are notused. The economic return of rice-fish/shrimp integrated system indicates that rice and fish followed by shrimp provides significantly high economic returns. Presently, the traditional system is modified by stocking with hatchery reared seed and supplementary feeding. The recent research also attempts to use improved salinetolerantrice varieties to circum vent the low productivity of traditional ricevarieties, to enable increased economic returns to the farmer. The availability of hatchery produced seeds of penaeid shrimps and fin fishes such as sea bass, pearl spot and increasing knowledge about this ecosystem provides an opportunity to optimize the sustainability and economic viability of this type of farming practices. Research efforts at CIBA Over the years, ICAR-CIBA has generated significant information on shrimp, fish, crab hatchery and grow-out production, nutrition and feed-technology, disease diagnosis and management to address the growing needs of Biofloc aquaculture sector and provided a platform for interaction with stakeholders. These technologies have the ecosystem approach based footprints and are discussed here. Polyculture based production system ICAR-CIBA carried out several experiments to evaluate the production potential of polyculture of Biofloc fin fishes and shell fishes. In an experiment to evaluate the poly culture in an extensive system, farm level performance of two systems were evaluated: shrimp with mullets (Mugil cephalus, Liza parsia and L. tade), and shrimp milk fish (Chanos chanos). In the 180 day culture experiments, it was found that the production is similar in both systems. However, tiger shrimp out performed in mullet-shrimp system than the milk fish shrimp system. It indicates that the mullet is more compatible with shrimp than milk fish. Further, this study also concludes that resource poor farmers can adopt this system as the input cost and expenditure is low. Organic production system for Biofloc species Organic aquaculture is a process of production of aquatic plants and animals with the use of only organic inputs in terms of seeds, supply of nutrients and management of diseases. Organic 4 production system is an ecosystem based approach to aquaculture.Organic foods have a separate niche market and many farmers are attracted to these farming practices due to lower cost of production and better economic returns. In India, INDOCERT provides certification for organic production systems. Although organic aquaculture is in a very nascent stage in India, its traditional system is close to the organic way of farming. Organic Aquaculture: periphyton based farming CIBA has attempted research effort to enhance the production and sustainability of shrimp farming within the frame work of EABA.
New Technology for fish farming
Periphyton based farming is an attempt in this direction. Periphyton refers to the entire complex of attached aquatic biota on submerged substrates comprising phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic organisms and detritus. The study conducted by CIBA clearly indicates that periphyton has a beneficial effect on growth and production of shrimp. Better growth rate with a productivity of 1640 to 2796 kg/ha/crop at a stocking density 8-12 individuals/m2 was observed. Further, the rate of return over operational cost was higher in periphyton-based system (92%) compared to the conventional farming (54%). This level of improvement of pond production with cheap on farm resources enhance the productivity of shrimp ponds without deteriorating ecosystem. Integrated multi-tropic Aquaculture (IMTA) Integrated Multi-Tropic Aquaculture is the farming of different aquaculture species to gether in a way that allows one species’ wastes to be utilized as feed for another. Farmers can combine fed aquaculture (e.g., fish, shrimp) with inorganic extractive (e.g., seaweed) and organic extractive (e.g., shellfish) aquaculture to create balanced systems for environment remediation (biomitigation), economic stability (improved out put, lower cost, product diversification and riskreduction) and social acceptability (better management practices) (Barrington et al., 2009). This forming model can be developed for augmenting the average productivity of open waterbodies. Bio secured zero water exchange shrimp farming technology (BZEST) Bio secure zero-exchange system for shrimp represents an emerging technology that provides a high degree of pathogen exclusion with minimal or zero water exchange. This zero water exchange shrimp farming system is an evolving culture practice with use of probiotics (Panigrahi, et al. 2007) and zero tolerance to banned chemicals and antibiotics. CIBA has developed a BZEST for application in the shrimp farming sector, which is characterized by the improved productivity and better FCR. This BZEST system is amenable for control of disease through Best Management Practices and preservation of waterresources. Bio-floc based technology for Biofloc species This is a relatively new technology to support high density, better water quality, water conservation, bio security, lower feed requirement and reduce the production cost. The concept of biofloc technology work saround the formation of dense heterotrophic bacterial community. 5 Eventually the system becomes bacterial dominated rather than algae dominated and forms microbial flocs by utilizing the waste materials in the pond. Biofloc is the conglomeration of micro organisms (such as heterotrophic bacteria, algae (dinoflagellates & diatoms), fungi, ciliates, flagellates, rotifers, nematodes, metazoans & detritus). Constant aeration and intermittent addition of carbon source as organic matter for the bacteria is needed to prevent the collapse of the system. In a typical Biofloc pond, 20–25% of fed protein is retained in the fish/shrimp, rest is wasted as ammonia and other metabolites. Manipulating the C:N ratio in the pond enhances conversion of toxic nitrogenous wastes into microbial biomass available as food for culture animals. CIBA has initiated efforts to develop a biofloc model suitable for Indian Biofloc farming systems. A series of experiments in pilot scale was conducted at CIBA showed measurable gain in the production as well as FCR in tiger shrimp P. monodon farming by following these eco based techniques (Shyne et al. 2012). Several studies (Panigrahi etal., 2014; Sujeet etal.,2015) indicates that bio-floc with periphyton systems (BPT) increased growth, survival and protective response. Seaweed integration with Biofloc aquaculture species There are attempts from research organization as well as private sectors to integrate shrimp aquaculture with seaweeds to make the intensive aquaculture more environmentally non degradable. Pacific Reef Fisheries, Pvt Ltd. started growing sea weed, Ulva spp in the 5 ha race way of their 98 ha P.monodon farm, and reported that this would be sufficient to remove the Nitrogen and Phosphorous from the effluent water from the shrimp farm. Further, the secondary crop provides additional income. CIBA have initiated research in this direction developing model farming with seaweed integration. Carrying capacity Carrying capacity is the major component of the EABA that helps to set upper limits of aquaculture production within the limits of environment or ecosystem and social acceptability (Ross et al., 2013). Carrying capacity is definedas “Ingeneralterms, carrying capacity for any sector can be defined as the level of resource use both by humans or animals that can be sustained over the long term by the natural regenerative power of the environment” (FAO, 2010). Aquaculture is a resource based industry, and therefore, it will compete with other allied industries, for example, fisheries, agriculture and tourism. It is therefore, essential to determine the carrying capacity for the sustainable development tofaquaculture. Carrying capacity has been categorized into four: physical, production, ecological and social (McKindsey et al., 2006).1) Physical carrying capacity quantifies the potential area available for aquaculture in the ecosystem. 2) Production carryingcapacity estimates the maximum aquaculture production. 3) Ecological carrying capacity determines the magnitude of aquaculture production without leading to the detrimental changes to the ecosystem. 4) Social carrying capacity is the amount of aquaculture that can be developed without major environmental and social impacts. CIBA has 6 developed decision support software in visual basic to estimate the maximum allowable farming area for a particular creek ordrainagecanal (Muralidhar., 2009). This software helps to determine are liable estimation of impact of shrimp farming and other land use impact in a region under various scenarios of increased development. Conclusion CIBA have developed and demonstrated some of the ecobased system of farming based on Low Input Sustainable Aquaculture (LISA); like improved traditional system, Organic farming system; including periphyton based farming, Biofloc polyculture system, Bio-floc, and integrated farming system involving rice, fish and horticulture. The ecosystem approach to aquaculture is mainly focused on low input based simple technology suited to the local conditions, providing sustainable, economically viable and socially acceptable models. India has vast resources of traditional farms which are close to nature which can be easily modified to suite these technologies. Most innovations and development of Biofloc aquaculture show casing the economic earnings is mainly due to the “industrial” aquaculture, using SPF seeds, formulated extruded feeds, aeration and with the use of various pond management inputs. Balanced growth of these different trajectories on complementary and integrated mode is the need of the hour. Ecobased innovative technologies like Biofloc or periphyton will certainly ensure to develop ecologically integrated aquafarming systems that are community-based, sustainable, and economically viable, along the side of industrial farming sector. References Barrington, K., Chopin, T., Robinson, S. 2009.Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) in marine temperate waters. In D. Soto (ed.). Integrated mariculture: a global review. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper: 529:7–46. FAO.2014.The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2014. Rome 223 pp. available at www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1820e/i1820e00.htm). McKindsey, C.W., Thetmeyer, H., Landry, T., Silvert, W. 2006. Review of recent carrying capacity models for bivalve culture and recommendations for research and management. Aquaculture, 26: 451–462. Muralidhar, M., B. P. Gupta, P. Ravichandran, S. M. Pillai, C. Gopal, Ch. Sarada and A. G. Ponniah. 2008. Decision support software on carrying capacity: Estimation of maximum area under shrimp farming for a selected water body. CIBA technology series,2. Panigrahi A., Sundaram., M., Ravichandran, P., Gopal, C. 2014.Microbial based approach for shrimp culture and management. ENVIS Newsletter (12)3-6. Panigrahi, A., Azad, I. S. 2007. Microbial intervention for better fish health in aquaculture: the Indian scenario. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 33:429-440. 7 Ross, L.G., Telfer, T.C., Falconer, L., Soto, D., Aguilar-Manjarrez, J.2013.Site selection and carrying capacities for inland and coastal aquaculture.FAO/Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, ExpertWorkshop,6 8 December 2010. Stirling, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Proceedings No. 21. Rome, FAO. pp46 Shyne Anand, P.S., Sujeet Kuma, Panigrahi, A., Ghoshal, T. K., Syama Daya, J., Biswas, G., Sundaray,J.K. De, D., Ananda Raja, R., Deo, A. D., Pillai, S. M., Ravichandran. P. 2012. Effects of C:N ratio and substrate integrationon periphyton biomass, microbial dynamics and growth of Penaeus monodon juveniles. Aquaculture International. 2:1511–524. Soto,D.,Aguilar-Manjarrez,J.,Hishamunda,N.Buildinganecosystemapproachtoaquaculture.FAO/ Universitat de les Illes Balears Expert Workshop.7–11 May 2007, Palma de Mallorca, Spain, FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Proceedings.No. 14. Rome, FAO.pp15–35. Sujeet Kumar., Shyne Anand., PS, De, D., Deo, A.D., Ghoshal, T.K., Sundaray, J.K., Ponniah, A G., Jithendran, KP., Raja, RA., Biswas G., Lalitha, N., 2015.Effects of biofloc under different carbon sources and protein levels on water quality, growth performance and immune responses in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Fabricius, 1978). Aquaculture Research. 1-15